What is Diversity?
The bigger picture: International doctoral researchers in Germany
Diversity in scientific research means a group of individuals with differences come together to solve a research problem. Research institute is the place where diverse collaborations can happen. In such diverse workplace, acknowledging individual differences has become even more important in order to create and maintain a safe, positive environment. We may take as an example the role of biodiversity in an ecosystem, mainly meaning a wide array of niches for the provision of ecosystem functions and services.
In human societies, diversity aspects may include age, ethnicity, nationality, class, gender, physical capabilities, race, sexual orientation, gender expression, educational background, relative income, religion (or lack thereof), marital and parental status, and work experience .
A diverse team brings out different perspectives in the exploration of research problems, considering various populations, procedures and methods . In fact, it is a natural tendency to be better prepared and work harder when we work in a group of people with different backgrounds and viewpoints. As a result, the quality of work also tends to improve significantly. Preserving and supporting diversity in an organization happens when differences are embraced in a way that no stereotypes fall upon individuals or groups . Thus, preserving and supporting diversity may be paramount in building up excellent research.
These systematic surveys provide relevant information on both international and German doctoral researchers and help to situate the Leibniz Association in the wider picture of doctoral programs in Germany  . Among the internationals who seek a degree in the country, 10.1% of them are in a doctoral program. Nearly half of these doctoral researchers (49%) are on a scholarship provided with an average amount of 1,139 euros a month.
Besides scholarships, the other main source of income for international doctoral researchers is personal earning. As many as 43% of doctoral researchers including scholarship holders, pursue paid activities alongside their research. Most of the international doctoral researchers expressed that a side job along with their research work at the institute, was necessary to cover the living expenses.
According to the Leibniz survey, further difficulties include language barriers, finding a room or an apartment without advanced German knowledge, bonding with Germans within and outside study/work environment, and also adapting to the local academic system .
These hardships show that the life of an international doctoral researcher as compared to a German doctoral researcher may face extra challenges in the way to accomplish their objectives besides the already challenging doctoral researcher’s life.
Why is cultural diversity in scientific research such an important topic? Because international collaborations are a central aspect of most Leibniz institutes, since these research centers perform a significant amount of their work abroad or do research on issues that affect countries other than Germany, both directly and indirectly.
Not surprisingly, about one third of all doctoral researchers in Leibniz institutes and museums come from outside Germany, namely 10.4% from within the EU and 18.8% from outside the EU. This represents a very rich cultural background, which also reflects the global character of the Leibniz research as a whole.
The variety in cultural backgrounds, nationalities, and native languages has an impact on the research that is done at the institute. In another note, having this hotpot of cultures at the workplace clearly has an impact on the researchers themselves, especially the international ones who are working abroad for the first time.
The Survey of the Leibniz PhD Network in 2017  has shown that nearly half of the international researchers feel the need to having specialized support at their research institute. Despite this need, four out of ten international respondents stated they have a contact person for international researchers at their institutes.
Figure 1: International doctoral researchers who desire more support within Leibniz Association and Leibniz Sections (A – Humanities and Educational Research, B – Economics, Social Sciences, Spatial Research, C – Life Sciences, D – Mathematics, Natural Sciences, Engineering, E – Environmental Sciences)
Besides, about 40% reported facing language barriers at the point that relevant information at their institute was not made available in a language they could understand.
Figure 2: Working Languages and Language barriers experienced within Leibniz Association and Leibniz Sections (A – Humanities and Educational Research, B – Economics, Social Sciences, Spatial Research, C – Life Sciences, D – Mathematics, Natural Sciences, Engineering, E – Environmental Sciences)
In terms of level of payment, significant difference can be observed between international and German doctoral researchers. About 57% of international doctoral researchers have a contract, with the payment level of more than 50% of a full-time contract, whereas 69% of German doctoral researchers have such contracts.
Having the adequate structure and guide to welcome internationals can help overcome cultural barriers and enhance the cultural exchange between Germans and non-Germans. When the sensation of equality flourishes, German and international researchers can learn much more from each other. Plus, the benefits for science are immense.
What type of specialized support is being provided by Leibniz Association to international doctoral researchers and what can be further improved?
Please check the second part of our article series!
Have you given a thought about how to address the cultural diversity issues or how to improve the life of an international doctoral researcher in all its complexity? Do you want to contribute to finding solutions? Join the Leibniz PhD Network’s Working Group on Diversity now!
By Rebecca Borges, Viviana G. Pinzon, Navaneetha C. Manjappa, Guilherme M. O. Abuchahla and WG Diversity